〈建立琉球政府〉的民政公告No.13(1952.02.29) ■雲程譯 st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";}【Remark】 From these proclamations and histories we understand occupation leads to military government and then civil administration. The administration power holds on the hand of the governor. In the case of Okinawa, the governor is the head of SCAP or Douglas Macarthur and his successors namely Matthew Ridgeway, Mark Wayne Clark etc. Please note the similarities between Okinawa and Taiwan both after 1895 and after 1945. Guam, of course, is another precedent. “Who and why he holds the power?” is the key to understand occupation and military government. 翻譯這些公告,是想讓網友體會:「佔領」後必然建立「軍政府」;「軍政府」權力非常之大,卻也不是毫無章法可以恣意為之。「軍事統治」(military government)必然要儘速改為「民政管理」(civil administration or civil government),然後逐漸將權力釋出歸還當地人民。而不是反其道而行──將權力釋出之後又毫無理由的收回。一如2008之後的台灣。 請細心體會軍政府建制與發展階段,和戰前台灣與戰後台灣的雷 會場佈置同(以及相異)之處。「誰?為何?擁有權力」是理解佔領與軍事統治的關鍵。 table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 請注意,琉球軍事統治中: 總督(the Governor)--在東京的US五星上將 副總督(the Deputy Governor)--在那霸的US陸軍少將 以及行政長(the Chief Executive)--議會所選任的「當地人?」 三者的關係。 真正的權力,掌握在外地(非本地)人手中,本地的行政長只是「ㄤ仔頭」。 於是,光從島內看,怎樣都看不出來奧妙之處。 進一步說,總督之上還有「能產生總督」的更大權威…。 table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 【相關史料】 琉球佔領第一號公告1945年4月(尼米茲公告) ■雲程譯 〈建立琉球政府〉的民政公告No.13(1952.02.29) ■雲程譯 釣魚台歸屬琉球民政府公告第27號1953.12.25 ■雲程譯 軍政府的設立與管理關島(上) 軍政府的設立與管理關島(下) st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 〈建立琉球政府〉的民政 房地產公告No.13(1952.02.29) ■雲程譯 1952年2月29日美國琉球群島民政府(USCAR) 副總督辦公室 此公告後經1952年民政府第17號公告、1965年琉球民政府第24號公告、1965年12月21日Ch 10、1952年2月29日民政府命令第68號修訂 公告琉球群島人民 茲建立琉球群島政府,以促進琉球人民之經濟、統治與社會福祉, 因此,本人,美國陸軍少將、琉球群島副總督ROBT S. BEIGHTLER公布如下: 第一條: 茲建立琉球群島政府,包括立法、行政與司法機構。 第二條: 琉球群島政府得對琉球群島行使統治權,但受限於美國琉球民政府之公告、法規與指令。 第三條: 琉球政府之立法權限賦予琉球群島人民(the People of the Ryukyu Islands)所選出之立法機構。行使立法權之立法部門,應獨立於琉球政府之行政與司法部門之外。授權立法部門制訂一切法律,包括制訂與課徵稅收、關稅、貨物稅與捐贈在琉球群島上他國單位之權力。立法機構之第一會期應於1952年4月於沖繩之那霸市召開,並應依法定期集會。 第四條: 琉球政府之行政權限賦予由〈第10713號行政命令〉(Executive Order 10713)所補充之文中所稱立法機構所選舉之「行政長」(the Chief Executive)。「行政長」應隨時通告立法機構有關政府狀況,並應建議可行方?東森房屋蛂C「行政長」有權召集立法機構臨時會期。「行政長」依據立法機構以決議與任命部門必要人事之授權,負責所有統治部門必要之行政與功能責任。但提倡武力或暴力推翻政府者,不得擔任琉球群島政府之官員或聘僱人員。「行政長」因故無法視事,或出缺時,其職權應由「副行政長」代行。(Ch 10/65、1952年2月29日民政府命令第68號、公告24/65、公告17/52修訂) 第五條: 茲建立琉球政府司法機構,即為琉球上訴法院(the Court of Appeals of the Ryukyus)、巡迴法院(the Circuit Courts)、治安法院(the Magistrate Courts)與其他必要之法庭。法庭應獨立於政府之行政與立法機構之外。琉球上訴法院法官由總督(行政長官,the Governor)任命。巡迴法院與治安法院之法官應在副總督(副民政長官,the Deputy Governor)同意下由行政長任命。副總督得依其判斷以檢視、同意、遣送、擱置、減刑、赦免或其餘修正,或駁回任何法院的任何決定、判決或宣告。 第六條: 民主國家之基本自由,包括宗教、言論、集會、請願與新聞自由,以及不合理之搜尋、逮捕與未經法律程序之剝奪生命、自由或財產等權利應與公共福祉一致。 第七條: 必要時,副總督擁有否決、禁止或擱置任何琉球群島政府或任何民政府或前述政府之代理機構所制訂之法律、 買屋命令或規則效力之權利。 第八條: 本公告生效日起,先前所任命與建立之「臨時中央政府」應中止與解散,所有由「臨時中央政府」所為之合法立法、行政與司法行為,在由本公告所建立之琉球群島政府各機構予以修正、取代或擱置之前繼續有效。但先前臨時中央政府行政與司法機構所為之所有人事任命,應對琉球群島政府持續有效。 第九條: 有關前述條款之1951年4月1日之〈琉球民政府公告第3號〉(CA Proclamation No. 3)「建立臨時中央政府」(Establishment of Provisional Central Government)與其他公告、命令與指令之條茲此撤銷。 第十條: 本公告將於1952年4月1日生效。 本人,陸軍少將副總督ROBT S. BEIGHTLER,在總督指令下於1952年2月29日公布。 UNITED STATES CIVIL ADMINISTRATION OF THE RYUKYU ISLANDS Office of the Deputy Governor APO 719 29 February 1952 CIVIL ADMINISTRATION PROCLAMATION NO. 13 ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RYUKYU ISLANDS (Amended By: CA Proclamation No. 17, 1952, USCAR Proclamation No. 24, 1965, Ch 10, 21 Dec 65, to CA Ordinance 68, 29 Feb 52) TO THE PEOPLE OF THE RYUKYU ISLANDS WHEREAS it is deemed desirable to establish a Government of the Ryukyu Islands i 酒店工作n order to further the economic, governmental and social well-being of the Ryukyuan people, NOW THEREFORE, I, ROBERT S. BEIGHTLER, Major General , United States Army, Deputy Governor of the Ryukyu Islands , do hereby proclaim as follows: Article I There is hereby established the Government of the Ryukyu Islands , including legislative, executive and judicial organs. Article II The Government of the Ryukyu Islands may exercise all powers of government within the Ryukyu Islands, subject however, to the Proclamations, Ordinances, and Directives of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. Article III The legislative power of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands shall be vested in a Legislature elected by the People of the Ryukyu Islands . The Legislature, in the exercise of its legislative power, shall be independent of the Executive and Judicial organs of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands . The Legislature is authorized to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers of the Government of the Ryukyu Islan 設計裝潢ds, including the power to lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, as well as make grant-in-aid authorizations to the other governmental units within the Ryukyu Islands. The First Session of the Legislature shall convene on the first day of April 1952 in Naha , Okinawa , and thereafter shall meet in regular session as prescribed by law. Article IV The executive power of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands shall be vested in the Chief Executive who is elected by the Legislature as provided by Executive Order 10713, as amended. He shall, from time to time, give to the Legislature information on the state of the Government, and shall recommend for its consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He shall have power to convene the Legislature in special session. He shall be responsible for the administration and functioning of the necessary administrative governmental departments as authorized by legislative action, and shall make appointments of necessary personnel to such departments, provided, however, that no one who advocates the overthrow of gover 酒店打工nment by force or violence shall be permitted to serve as an official or employee of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands. The Deputy Chief Executive shall be appointed by the Chief Executive. In the event of absence or inability on the part of the Chief Executive to perform his duties, or in the event of a vacancy in such office, the Deputy Chief Executive shall perform such duties. (As amended by Ch 10/65 to CA Ordinance 68, 1952; Proc 24/65; Proc 17/52) Article V The judicial organs of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands shall be the Court of Appeals of the Ryukyus, the Circuit Courts, the Magistrate Courts, heretofore established and such other courts as may be established from time to time. Courts, in the exercise of their judicial power, shall be independent of the Executive and Legislative organs of government. The judges of the Court of Appeals shall be appointed by the Governor. The judges of the Circuit Courts and of the Magistrate Courts shall be appointed by the Chief Executive subject to the prior approval of the Deputy Governor. The Deputy Governor may, in his discretion, review, approve, remand, suspend, c 裝潢ommute, remit or otherwise modify or set aside any decision, judgment or sentence of any court. Article VI The basic liberties of democratic countries, including freedom of religion, speech, assembly, petition and the press, and security from unreasonable search, seizure, and deprivation of life, liberty or property without due process of law, shall be guaranteed as far as is consistent with the public welfare. Article VII The Deputy Governor reserves the right, in the event of necessity, to veto, prohibit, or suspend the operation of any laws, ordinances or regulations enacted by the Government of the Ryukyu Islands or any civil government or agency of any such government; to order the promulgation of any law, ordinance or regulation he may deem advisable; and to resume, in whole or in part, the exercise of full authority, in the Ryukyu Islands. Article VIII Upon the effective date of this Proclamation, the Provisional Central Government heretofore appointed and instituted shall adjourn and dissolve, provided that all lawful legislative, executive and judicial acts performed by the Provisional Central Government shall remain in forc 小型辦公室e and effect until amended, repealed or superseded by acts of the respective organs of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands established by this Proclamation. Provided, however, all appointments heretofore made to Executive and Judicial positions in the Provisional Central Government shall continue in full force and effect with regard to similar positions in the Government of the Ryukyu Islands . Article IX Subject to the provisions of the preceding Article, CA Proclamation No. 3 of 1 April 1951, "Establishment of Provisional Central Government," and the provisions of any other Proclamation, Ordinance and Directive in conflict herewith, are rescinded. Article X This Proclamation will become effective on the first day of April 1952. Given under my hand this 29th day of February 1952. BY DIRECTION OF THE GOVERNOR: s/t/ ROBT S. BEIGHTLER Major General , U. S. Army Deputy Governor the ryukyu-okinawa history and culture website c 1995-2009 john michael purves somayama@me.com http://www.niraikanai.wwma.net/pages/archive/caproc13.html .msgcontent .wsharing ul li { text-indent: 0; } 分享 Facebook Plurk YAHOO! 個人信貸  .
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